How many sections are in the PA mandated Reporter Training

The Child Protective Services Law (CPSL) - Reporting Training is made possible by the University of Pittsburgh, the Department of Human Services, Office of Children, Youth and Families, the Pennsylvania Children and Youth Administrators, and funding from the Children's Justice Act The new Mandated Reporter Training for Child Care Providers does now satisfy the requirements of AB 1207. Followed by the general training module, the Child Care Providers module is a three hour training that includes eight sections. Each section will include practice test questions or vignettes

Reporting Test. You should always talk to the child's parent or caregiver before making a report of suspected child abuse or neglect. If the child is in immediate danger, you should file your report quickly and then call 911. Mandated reporters file their reports with the State's Attorney. It's helpful to attach documentation to your report Provisions of the Act of December 12, 1973 (P.L.397, No.141), known as the Educator Discipline Act, including mandatory reporting requirements. This Act was revised in February, 2014 and enhances many aspects of the Act. The school entity's policies related to reporting of suspected abuse and sexual misconduct Act 31 of 2014 states that the Bureau of Professional and Occupational Affairs (BPOA), in conjunction with the Department of Human Services (DHS) is required to ensure that all persons applying for issuance of an initial license as a health-related licensee or funeral director (mandatory reporters under section 6311 of the Child Protective Services Law (CPSL) (23 P.S.§ 6311)) shall be.

Solely under the law, a mandated reporter is a person who is required to make a report of suspected child abuse under Pennsylvania law. Accordingly, pursuant to the Pennsylvania Child Protective Services Law, the following shall make a report of suspected child abuse, if the person has reasonable cause to suspect that a child is a victim of. All nurses are considered mandatory reporters under section 6311 of the Child Protective Services Law (CPSL) 23 P.S. § 6322), as amended, that effective January 1, 2015, all nurses applying for issuance of an initial license shall be required to complete 3 hours of Department of Human Services (DHS) [formerly known as the Department of Public Welfare (DPW)], -approved training in child abuse recognition and reporting requirements as a condition of licensure Course Description. PENNSYLVANIA ACT 31 Mandated Training on Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting Requirement. 3-contact-hour training course for INITIAL LICENSE APPLICATION for all mandated reporters. Approved by the PA Department of Human Services, with daily electronic reporting to the Pennsylvania Department of State (DOS) Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting Online Course. This Task has been designed for use by Faculty, Staff. For Faculty, Staff. If you will have direct contact with children, the University recommends that you are trained on the protection of children through the online program at www.reportabusepa.pitt.edu

How many sections are in the mandated reporter training

  1. Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 403 East Winding Hill Road Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 Phone: (717) 795-9048 Fax: (717) 795-8013. Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse Training Help Desk Phone: (717) 605-0236 Mon-Fri: 8am-4p
  2. Act 126 Training Information. Act 120 of 2013 (SB 34) made significant changes to the Educator Discipline Act. Changes include greatly enhanced mandatory reporting requirements, in addition to significant changes to the Child Protective Services Law (CPSL) that greatly impact mandated reporters. Add Content Section. Act 126 General Information
  3. This course is approved for 3 continuing education credits and has been approved by the PA Department of Human Services and Department of State to meet mandated reporting (Act 31) license requirements. All other licensing-related questions should be referred to your respective Board (s)

How many sections are there in mandated reporter training

Prior to Senate Bill 21 (Act 33), Pennsylvania's Domestic Relations Code (23 Pa.C.S. §6303 et seq.) provided guidance for defining mandated reporters in Pennsylvania, as well as necessary steps for making a report. SB21 amends the definitions of §6303 and amends the list of persons required to report suspected child abuse in §6311. 3. Who needs to take the training? All staff designated as mandatory reporters are required to take the DCF Mandated Reporter Training. Effective October 1, 2014, Public Act 14-186, section 6 amended Conn. Gen. Stat. § 17a-101(b) to expand mandated reporters of child abuse and neglect to include any pai Mandated Reporter Training Per Act 126, mandated reporters must take a 3 hour training on Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse every five years. Act 31 requires all employees licensed by the Pennsylvania Department of State take a 2-3 hour training on Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse every five years

Act 31 - Pennsylvania Department of Stat

Mandated reporter training is now available in Spanish via the links below. The New York State Office of Children and Family Services now offers FREE 24/7 online Mandated Reporter Training in Child Abuse and Neglect/Maltreatment Identification. You can register anytime at www.nysmandatedreporter.org Mandated reporters can report by telephone or electronically through the Child Welfare Portal. More information on mandated reporting. In addition, permissive reporters are individuals who are encouraged to report suspected child abuse, although not required by law. Permissive reporters can make a report at any time they suspect a child is the. MANDATED REPORTERS. Mandated Reporters are defined under the Pennsylvania Child Protective Services Law (CPSL), Section 6311.Persons required to report suspected child abuse: Mandated Reporters. - The following adults shall make a report of suspected child abuse, subject to subsection (B), if the person has reasonable cause to suspect that a child is a victim of child abuse Mandated reporters are professionals who have regular contact with children and are therefore legally required to report suspected child abuse. The Child Abuse Mandated Reporter Training Project provides free training for all mandated child abuse reporters so they may carry out their responsibilities properly Mandated reporters are required to report or cause a report to be made when, in the ordinary course of their employment or profession, they have reasonable cause to suspect or believe that a child under the age of 18 has been abused, neglected or is placed in imminent risk of serious harm. (Connecticut General Statutes §17a-101a

Section 6311 (a) of the Act defines who is a Mandatory Reporter. Some examples are: Any individual licensed or certified by Pennsylvania to practice in any health-related field. A Medical examiner, coroner, or funeral director. An employee of a licensed health care facility. A school employee This course provides information on new PA laws around child protection and mandated reporting and is available and free to anyone. Audience 333 Captioning/Transcripts 0 Author Continuing Education Credit 0 Date Fee 0 Language 0 Topic elearning_topic 301 Type 31

Child Abuse: Pennsylvania Mandated Reporter Training

  1. This course is Part 1 of Pennsylvania's ACT 126 mandatory training for school employees. The training focuses on the following topics: essential elements of the Pennsylvania Child Protective Services Law, facts about child abuse, mandatory reporting of suspected child abuse and sexual misconduct
  2. istrator or employee of a licensed Child Day Care Facility shall take Mandated Reporters training within the first 90 days when employed by the Facility
  3. New Child Abuse Reporting Training Offered by Pitt Online. The list of individuals in Pennsylvania who must report suspected child abuse grew at the close of 2014 thanks to the state's newly.
  4. Child Abuse: Pennsylvania Mandated Reporter Training Initial Licensure. Many mandated reporters feel there is a conflict between their legal obligation to report and their legal obligation to maintain client or patient confidentiality. Reporting Process6. If a child is in immediate danger, call 911
  5. istrator who fails to file a mandatory report under section 9a of the Educator Discipline Act is subject to.
  6. This section cited in 49 Pa. Code § 47.51 (relating to definitions relating to child abuse reporting requirements); and 49 Pa. Code § 47.79 (relating to mandatory reporting). § 47.56. Confidentiality—waived
  7. Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse: Mandated and Permissive Reporting in Pennsylvania In response to Pennsylvania's new Act 31—which requires all professionals in the state who regularly come in contact with children to receive training in the recognition and reporting of child abuse—the University of Pittsburgh School of Social Work is.

Mandated Reporter Online Training The goal of the Mandated Reporter Online Training is for mandated reporters to have the appropriate knowledge and understanding of their responsibilities under the Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Law (CANRA), Penal Code (PC sections 11164-11174.3) True False 18 Mandated reporting laws for child abuse and neglect are the same for public and private organizations. True False 19 A mandated reporter should only report child abuse after they have investigated the concern and determined that abuse or neglect has occurred Mandated and Permissive Reporting in Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh, School of Social Work The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 403 East Winding Hill Road Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 Phone: 717-795-9048 Fax: 717-795-8013 www.pacwrc.pitt.edu This training is free of charge and meets Act 31 training No, at this time we only offer a course for 3 continuing education credits which have been approved by the PA Department of Human Services and the PA Department of State to meet ACT 31 Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting Training requirements Mandated Reporter Training Pennsylvania Family Support . 2. On-Demand Online Training.Although the best way to receive training on recognizing and reporting child abuse and neglect is through interactive, in-person training, PFSA offers a self-paced, online alternative for mandated reporters in both English and Spanish. Cost is $30. Please allow 3 hours to complete this training

Act 126 Training - PA

CAPC offers free live training to Mandated Reporters throughout Contra Costa County regarding signs and symptoms of suspected child abuse and reporting requirements. To request a mandated reporter training call Cristina Hickey at 925-798-0546 ext.15 or email at chickey@capc-coco.org This is Pennsylvania's early childhood source for professionals. We have all the latest information for OCDEL's early childhood programs and helpful facts for your professional career development. You can also check here for the latest news, events and links to additional initiatives and resources. If you are a parent, family member, or. Child Abuse: Pennsylvania Mandated Reporter Training, 2 hours - License Renewal - 2 Contact Hours. This course is to prepare healthcare professionals to identify child abuse and maltreatment/neglect and to comply with Pennsylvania mandatory reporting license renewal requirements. View Course Complete Course CHILD ABUSE MANDATED REPORTER TRAINING MILESTONE . The Pennsylvania state legislature passed Act 126 and Act 31 which requires professionals working with school-age children to be trained in the recognition and reporting mandates for child abuse. Your placement site will expect you to have completed this training CALL 1.800.932.0313. The PA Chapter, American Academy of Pediatrics has been the trusted source for health care providers to receive exceptional in-person mandated reporter training since 1999. The Suspected Child Abuse & Neglect (SCAN) Program was the first state-wide child abuse education program in the country for health care providers and.

Mandated Reporting in Pennsylvania - PA Families In

Reporting Test Mandated Reporters Interactive Trainin

  1. Affordable Care Act InformationBurial and Cremation ServicesContractor Partnership Program (CPP)Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) Vendor RegistrationInformation for LIHEAP VendorsASL & Interpretation ServicesBusiness and Technology StandardsQualityProvider Training
  2. If you have direct contact with children through your Pitt employment and/or volunteer work, the University recommends that you get training on the recognition and reporting of child abuse. One place to do this is through a free online program developed by the Pennsylvania Department of Human Services (DHS) and the Pitt School of Social Work's Child Welfare Resource Center
  3. *State-mandated courses including child abuse, human trafficking, and reporting requirements.Complete Course Online (Preferred)Print & GoContact HoursPriceKentucky: Shaken Baby Syndrome PDF2.5$25New York: Child Abuse and Maltreatment/Neglect for Mandated Reporters PDF2.0$19New York: Infection Control and Prevention, including Sepsis PDF5.0$29Pennsylvania: Child Abus
  4. Welcome to the new Mandated Reporter Training Website! All users must register for a new account and be signed in to take exams and issue certificates. 1. Register. Create an account to take Mandated Reporter Training courses, exams, and issue certificates - all online, all the time! Sign Up. 2. Sign In
  5. Department of Human Services, PA Family Support Alliance Highlight Child Abuse Prevention Month, Hotline for Suspected Abuse Reporting. Department of Human Services Acting Secretary Meg Snead joined the PA Family Support Alliance to mark Child Abuse Prevention Month and encourage Pennsylvanians to report. View All
  6. Mentor: Mandated Reporters should never assume that another professional who is involved with the child has already reported the situation to the Hotline. It is your responsibility to call and report what you know about the situation. Even if a report has already been made, your information is still valuable, as it could assist the investigator in deciding whether to indicate the report
  7. Nys Mandated Reporter Quiz Answers. Answer Sheet. advertisement California Child Abuse Mandated Reporting Test General Training 1) Under the Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Act, a mandated reported is required to report suspected abuse to: a) his or her employer or supervisor b) local child protective authorities c) the child's parents d) the California Department of Justice.

Act 126 - Child Abuse Reporting - PA

Mandated reporters are held to a higher standard of responsibility and may receive serious consequences for not reporting suspected abuse. Pennsylvania's Child Protective Services Law (CPSL) was amended in 2014, including substantial changes to the list of people who are mandated reporters. Effective December 31, 2014, people in these. Pa mandated reporter training online free All the time spent 24 hours week past free month on-site training We provide on-site training to groups of no less than 10 and up to 50 reporters sent for training session free of charge, based on availability Participants receive a certificate of completion for their records Scheduling at Free On-Site Training Session 3 (35 minutes) - Just the Mandated Reporter: Child Abuse and Neglect Section A ll district employees must complete Mandated Report training annually within 6 weeks of the start of school year, and new hires must complete training within 6 weeks of employment. Child Abuse Reporting, Sexual Harassment and Drug/Alcohol/Tobacco Free Workplac

Mandated Reporting Bodily injury is defined as the impairment of physical condition or substantial pain. 18 Pa.C.S. § 2301 Pregnancy is a type of bodily harm specifically identified as a personal injury in the criminal law of Pennsylvania. 18 Pa.C.S. § 1106(h) 43. Mandated Reporting Sexual intercourse with a child less than 13. Mandated reporters can participate in this 2-hour web-based online training course at any time, 24/7. Users must complete the course within 30 days and within the course duration which is the current calendar year. Progress is saved at the end of each section, so you can complete it at your own pace MANDATED REPORTER ONLINE TRAINING Text Version. MANDATED REPORTER ONLINE TRAINING Text Version 1 If this is an emergency, for example, young children are currently alone or being beaten, call 911 or your local police department, as they are able to respond immediately. To report a concern, call the New York State Child Abuse Hotline at 800-342.

The Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) radiological requirements of 25 Pa. Code 221.11 (b) have specific requirements for determination of competence and continuing education; they apply to all operators of diagnostic X-ray equipment. The department, through the BRP, shall provide a list of professional organizations and resources whose. Child Abuse: New York Mandated Reporter Training. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. Pa Mandated Reporter Post-test. Questions and Answers 1. As a mandated reporter you may NOT keep a child in your custody even if you believe the child will be physically harmed if you send them home The official website of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Find information and services from Pennsylvania state government agencies Employment and Training Administration Office of National Response Division of Worker Dislocation and Special Response 200 Constitution Avenue, NW Room N-5422 Washington, DC 20210. Tel: 1-877-US2-JOBS (1-877-872-5627), or 202-693-3500 TTY: 1-877-889-562

Act 31 Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting - NASW-P

  1. Add Act 126 Content Item; Act 126; Act 120 of 2013 (SB 34) made significant changes to the Educator Discipline Act. Changes include greatly enhanced mandatory reporting requirements, in addition to significant changes to the Child Protective Services Law (CPSL) that greatly impact mandated reporters
  2. In many parts of the western world, a mandated reporter is a person who has regular contact with vulnerable people and is therefore legally required to ensure a report is made when abuse is observed or suspected. Specific details vary across jurisdictions—the abuse that must be reported may include neglect, or financial, physical, sexual, or other types of abuse
  3. ation of the safety of or risk of harm to the child or any other child if each child continues to remain in the existing home environment. (2) A deter
  4. Many companies consider drivers under the age of 25 a higher risk, and this often translates into higher premiums. Your child may be eligible for discounts. Ask your insurance company if they offer discounts for good grades or completed driver education courses. Taking a driver safety training course is an excellent way to keep you

Reporting Child Abuse Training FAQ PSU Finance & Busines

The general training module is all inclusive, non-profession specific, and should be taken by every Mandated Reporter. ְ p _ l u88 t:a ~~ W# Cx a K &W b{`!C +5 f ]q =H @ P Ǖ 1dU/ Z 2 0 1Қop 9Ƣ~# K5 Here are the interactive online training quizzes for trainers to test yourself, facilitate learning, and ensure information retention Pa Mandated Reporter Post-Test. Questions And Answers 1. The Child Care Providers Module Is A Three Hour Training That Includes Eight Sections. Each Section Will Include Practice Test Questions Or Vignettes. The General Training Module Is All Inclusive, Non-Profession Specific, And Should Be Taken By Every Mandated Reporter Trainings for Mandated Reporters. Dhs.pa.gov DA: 14 PA: 34 MOZ Rank: 48. The University of Pittsburgh's Child Welfare Resource Center to develop a free, web-based training; This training is approved in accordance with Act 126 of 2012 and Act 31 of 2104, for mandated and permissive reporters; View a list of additional approved courses for child abuse recognition and reporting training for.

ACT 31 Requirements School of Nursing University of

Discusses laws that impose penalties, in the form of fines, jail time, or both, on mandatory reporters who fail to report cases of suspected child abuse and neglect as required by the reporting laws. State laws also may impose penalties on any person who knowingly makes a false report of abuse or neglect The law, which takes effect Dec. 31, also spells out duties of teachers and other mandated reporters in reporting suspected child abuse Great way to obtain mandatory reporting training. Online course was extremely easy to use and navigate. In-depth online material provided to study for and afterward exam will be given per section of the material studied. Material is easy to comprehend and exams will ask examples, scenarios, and core responsibilities of a mandated reporter. In its recent report on the adequacy of the healthcare workforce for older Americans (Retooling for an Aging America, 2008), the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) recommends that federal requirements for the minimum training of certified nursing assistants (CNAs) and home health aides should be raised to at.

The program serves all children of school age attending public, private and non-public schools in Pennsylvania and is responsible for providing technical assistance, training and coordination of programs and services to schools, parents and the community at large regarding school health programs and services Continuing Education Requirements. All licensed pharmacists in Pennsylvania must demonstrate that they have taken 30 credit hours of pharmacy continuing education during a two-year period. The two-year period ends on September 30 in even numbered years. License renewal is available on-line and the State Board of Pharmacy sends out a reminder. If you would like to request copies of these posters to be mailed to you from the Pennsylvania Department of Labor & Industry, please call 833-728-2367 Option 1. Visit our Employer & Tax Services: Important Information for additional information including the mandatory distribution of Form UC-1609 (Employer Information Form) to all separating. In Pennsylvania, for example, mandatory reporting of domestic violence requirements apply to both health care providers and managers of a health care facility, but there are well-defined exceptions to mandatory reporting. For example, health care providers or managers in Pennsylvania don't have to report suspected domestic violence if the victim

Act 31 Training 3 Hrs Pennsylvania License Applicatio

Medical Marijuana: A Course for Pennsylvania Practitioners | 4.0 contact hours. $ 150.00 Add to cart. Add to cart If you have questions about the vaccination process in Pennsylvania, please call the Pennsylvania Department of Health hotline at 1-877-724-3258. COVID-19 Dashboard Check out the Pennsylvania COVID-19 Dashboard to see up-to-date data on case counts and demographics, hospital preparedness, and testing Mandated reporters are people who are required by law to report suspected child abuse. Effective December 31, 2014, these people are considered mandated reporters under Pennsylvania Law: School employee (someone who is employed by the school or who provides a program, activity or service sponsored by a school) Articles. Last Updated: Apr 6, 2020. Pennsylvania dispensers or prescribers applying for an initial license and those applying for re-licensure are required to complete opioids continuing education. The Pennsylvania Medical Society (PAMED) often hears from members who are wondering how to complete the opioids education requirement

Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting Online Course All

A ny p erson who believes that an older adult is being abused, neglected, exploited, or abandoned may file a confidential report at any time with any Area Agency on Aging or by calling the statewide abuse hotline 1-800-490-8505. Both can receive reports 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are responsible to investigate within 72 hours The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania respects your privacy and will not share your information from Keystone Login with any third parties. 11. Who do I contact with additional questions or to request help? You should contact the Keystone Login Help Desk. The help desk can be reached by phone at 877-328-0995 or by email at KeystoneLoginSupport. Overview of Pennsylvania Domestic Violence Laws. Domestic violence is not considered a separate charge from something like assault, aggravated assault or battery in Pennsylvania.Instead, there are merely additional considerations when the call is made regarding a domestic violence situation Center Public Serv. Psych. Annual Conf. Impact Climate Change on Mental Health/Comm.Wellbeing Nov. Child and Adolescent Bipolar Spectrum Conference October 7, 2021. Act 74 - Suicide Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment. Parent/Caregiver Virtual Support Group. COUNTY Covid Spread Sheet by date and Month and County

University of Pittsburgh: Pennsylvania Child Welfare

COVID-19 vaccines are not mandated under Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not mandate vaccination. However, whether a state, local government, or employer, for example, may require or mandate COVID-19 vaccination is a matter of state or other applicable law This is a one-hour training component emphasizing workers' rights. It is required content in every 10- and 30-hour OSHA Construction, General Industry, and Maritime Outreach course. This component has been updated to incorporate the recent changes to the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) to align. Coverage for treatment of autism spectrum disorders under this section may be limited to a maximum benefit of: $50,000 a year for a child 8 years of age or younger; and. $20,000 a year for a child 9 years of age through 18 years of age. Citation: Mont. Code Ann. §33-22-515 State Health Insurance Mandates and the ACA Essential Health Benefits (EHB) Provisions, with 50-state tables showing differences among states. These benefits applied to health policies for patient treatments beginning Jan. 1, 2014 and updated versions apply by state to the latest enrollments for 2017 and 2018

State Plans are OSHA-approved workplace safety and health programs operated by individual states or U.S. territories. There are currently 22 State Plans covering both private sector and state and local government workers, and there are six State Plans covering only state and local government workers The Vaccine for Children Program (VFC) provides vaccinations to children who do not have health insurance or children who are insured but the insurance does not cover immunizations (underinsured). These children are eligible to receive federally funded vaccines at public sites, including Federally Qualified Health Centers and Rural Health.

Video: Act 126 Training Information - Pennsylvania Department of

University of Pittsburgh - Login Her

Trainings for Mandated Reporters. Dhs.pa.gov DA: 14 PA: 34 MOZ Rank: 48. Mandated Reporter Training The Department of Human Services supports child abuse recognition and reporting training through a variety of delivery methods, including web-based and in-person; The department contracts with: Pennsylvania Family Support Allianc Pursuant to the orders issued by the Governor and the Secretary of Health, the physical office of the Department of Drug and Alcohol Programs is currently closed in an effort to prevent the spread of COVID-19. If you are seeking to serve a civil complaint or a Writ of Summons on the Department of Drug and Alcohol Programs or any Department. A therapist may be forced to report information disclosed by the patient if a patient reveals their intent to harm someone else. However, this is not as simple as a patient saying simply they would like to kill someone, according to Jessica Nicolosi, a clinical psychologist in Rockland County, New York. There has to be intent plus a. Continuing Education Courses for Healthcare Professionals. With your busy schedule, it's not easy to squeeze in professional development, but you know choosing to care for others means choosing to be a life-long learner. With thousands of accredited courses across 30 healthcare professions, we make it easy to get the CE credits you need so. With one COVID-19 vaccine now in emergency use — and potentially more to follow — Pennsylvania's weary teachers, parents, and students can see a path back towards normalcy. A vaccine, if effective, could make in-person schooling substantially safer and lead to thousands of children reentering classrooms for the first time since mid-March

MinistrySafe Pennsylvania Law Changes - MinistrySaf

New York Times: After 24 hours of wild gun battles with suspects in the assassination of Haiti's president, the nation's authorities announced the arrests of 20 people and called on the United States to send troops to help protect crucial infrastructure. Haiti's remarkable request for military assistance from the U.S., a former colonial overlord that has repeatedly intervened in. Alert: The Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA) requires certain employers to provide their employees with paid sick leave or expanded family and medical leave for specified reasons related to COVID-19. These provisions will apply from April 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020. Each covered employer must post in a conspicuous place on its premises a notice of FFCRA requirements The Face-to-Face Supervision and Training Waiver that expired yesterday will be extended! CAMFT has received confirmation from the BBS that this waiver will now be extended by DCA through August 31st. While this is great news, we encourage our members to prepare for the eventual expiration of this waiver On December 17, 2019, HRSA updated the HRSA-supported Women's Preventive Services Guidelines. Read the most current version.. Non-grandfathered plans and coverage (generally, plans or policies created or sold after March 23, 2010, or older plans or policies that have been changed in certain ways since that date) are required to provide coverage without cost sharing consistent with these.