Home

Queer geographies

  1. 8 Queer Geographies. The streets, parks, piers, and bathrooms of cruising represent spaces in the establishment of our counterculture in history. A secret language and social codes were our weapon, and they were the basis for the formation of our collective identities, which late
  2. Trans Geographies, Queer Geographies, Queer Theory, Social Theory, Visceral Geographies, Geographies of Privilege: Geography: There is currently no content classified with this term. Department of Writing, Rhetoric, and Digital Studies (859) 257-7002 1353 Patterson Office Towe
  3. To help you embark further on the path of queer visual geographies, I have included a series of three recommended reading lists on the topics of geographic theory, queer theory and LGBTQ studies, and LGBTQ studies in geography. As I mentioned in the introduction, I used to be afraid to get in bed with theory. In getting to know geographic an
  4. Digital Geography, Queer Geographies, urban geography, Postcolonial Thought, Indigenous Thought, Critical cartography & GIS, Affect Theory, The Anthropocene, Central America Sid Feinberg Queer Geographies , Social Movement Geographies , Housing Activism , Domesticities , Queer of Color Critique , social reproductio
  5. alities of queer space: public parks turned cruising grounds, streets fashioned into the territory of protest, the closet, bathrooms, 'zines, and more. 6 The study of queer geographies may include memorial or commemorative spaces, geographies of citizenship, subjectivity, geographies of the rural.
  6. ality. Queer and trans* approaches question presumptions about norms and being upon which many geographical.

Abstract. Scholarship on queer geographies has called attention to the active production of space as heterosexualized and has levelled powerful critiques at the implicit heterosexual bias of much geographical theorizing. As a result, critical geographers have begun to remark upon the resistance of gays, lesbians and other sexual subjects to a. 1 Queer Geography Rictor Norton Review of Matt Houlbrook, Queer London: Perils and Pleasures in the Sexual Metropolis, 1918-1957 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005) 'Perils and pleasures' in the subtitle of Matt Houlbrook's book refer to the fact that queer urban lives from the end of the First World War to the publication of the Wolfenden Report in 1957 were conducted in a. Queer Geographies Share this page: Display Name Research Interests A&S Affiliations External Affiliations ; Tristan Boyd : Digital Geography, Queer Geographies, urban geography, Postcolonial Thought, Indigenous Thought, Critical cartography & GIS, Affect Theory, The Anthropocene, Central America: Christian Brooks Keeve : Black.

Queer Geographies Writing, Rhetoric, and Digital Studie

  1. Queer geography began to analyze the hetero- and homo-normativities involved in shaping spatial power relations, critically engage with the intersections between sexual normativities and other power relations such as racialization and colonialism, and disrupt the orthodoxies of geographical epistemologies and methodologies. 37 The material.
  2. Spatialising Sexuality and Gender: Queer and Trans Geographies¿ provides an opportunity for students to critically, and self-reflexively, consider how sexuality and gender inform, and unfold in, the everyday spaces we inhabit. The course content provides an intersectional introduction to studying sexuality and gender through the perspectives.
  3. Since the 1980s, the geographies of sexualities literature has become a key component of geographic literature, contributing primarily to human geography and critical GIS. The sub-field grew alongside scholarship in what is now billed lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) studies that began in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as.

Queer Qeographies (Beirut, Tijuana, Copenhagen. This book explores the possibilities of queer identities lived outside of the heteronormative supremacy, uncovering how gender and sexuality are shaped differently by the landscapes of cities and examining how we can shape and form the city ourselves. The works and texts stem from Queer Geography.. Queer Geographies Published on Dec 10, 2014 This book explores the possibilities of queer identities lived outside of the heteronormative supremacy, uncovering how gender and sexuality.. Trans Geographies, Queer Geographies, Queer Theory, Social Theory, Visceral Geographies, Geographies of Privilege: Geography: There is currently no content classified with this term. Department of Geography (859) 257-2931 817 Patterson Office Tower Lexington KY 40506-0027 Fax (859) 257-627

A Queer New York: Geographies of Lesbians, Dykes, and Queers and millions of other books are available for Amazon Kindle. Learn more. Books › Politics & Social Sciences › Social Sciences Buy new: $30.00 & FREE Returns Return this item for free. Free returns are available for the shipping address you chose.. 94 Queer Geographies. backdoor cities, cities that challenge intelligibility, that exceed the interpretive frames. Thus the city is directly related with the agencies of the queer masses and with. Sexuality and space is a field of study within human geography.The phrase encompasses all relationships and interactions between human sexuality, space and place, themes studied within cultural geography, i.e., environmental and architectural psychology, urban sociology, gender studies, queer studies, socio-legal studies, planning, housing studies and criminology AAG Queer and Trans Geographies Specialty Group. June 3, 2020 ·. QTGSG stands in solidarity with our Black colleagues across the discipline, and with Black communities and protesters across the United States and around the world. Thank you to the Indigenous Peoples Speciality Group and for calling on the speciality groups to show solidarity. 44

Queer Geographies Hispanic Studie

Queer Geographies Air Force ROTC (Aerospace Studies

  1. Despite rapid growth of geographies of genders and sexualities over the past decade, there is still a great deal of homophobia, transphobia, and heterosexism within academic knowledges. A queer and..
  2. ist and queer geographies 'down-under' in Aotearoa New.
  3. This book explores the possibilities of queer identities lived outside of the heteronormative supremacy, uncovering how gender and sexuality are shaped differently by the landscapes of cities and.
  4. Recent years have seen a dramatic upsurge of interest in the connections between sexualities, space and place. Drawing established and 'founding' figures of the field together with emerging authors, this innovative volume offers a broad, interdisciplinary and international overview of the geographies of sexualities. Incorporating a discussion of queer geographies, Geographies of Sexualities.

Queer Geographies Mathematic

As a working definition, we might say provisionally that queer modernism delineates the sexually transgressive and gender deviant energies that help fuel modernism's desire to thwart normative aesthetics, knowledge, geographies, and temporalities Queer Geographies. This book explores the possibilities of queer identities lived outside of the heteronormative supremacy, uncovering how gender and sexuality are shaped differently by the landscapes of cities and examining how we can shape and form the city ourselves. The works and texts stem from Queer Geography workshops held in Beirut.

I am Associate Professor of Geography at the University of Kentucky, where I teach courses on digital, feminist, and queer geographies, as well as critical cartography and mapping. My first monograph, A Queer New York: Geographies of Lesbians, Dykes, and Queers, 1983-2008 (NYU Press, 2020), is a historical geography of contemporary lesbian. Titled Mapping the Gay Guides, the project aims to correct the cultural erasure of historical geography by spotlighting local communities' oft-unheralded queer history and, adds Gonzaba. Queer ecology. The term queer ecology refers to a series of practices that reimagine nature, biology, and sexuality in the light of queer theory. Queer ecology disrupts heterosexist notions of nature, drawing from a diverse array of disciplines, including science studies, ecofeminism, environmental justice, and queer geography

Queer Frontiers: Millennial Geographies, Genders, and Generations Paperback - April 5, 2000 by Joseph A. Boone (Editor), Debra Silverman (Editor), Cindy Sarver (Editor), Karin Quimby (Editor), Martin Dupuis (Editor) Capitol Hill, widely known since the 1970s as Seattle's gay neighborhood, is changing. As development and gentrification sweep in, many longtime residents ha..

(PDF) Queer geographies and the rhetoric of orientation

In queer renderings of postmodern geography, the notion of a body-centered identity gives way to a model that locates sexual subjectivities within and between embodiment, place, and practice. But queer work on sexuality and space, like queer work on sexuality and time, has had to respond to canonical work on postmodern geography by Edward. Natalie Oswin, Critical Geographies and the Uses of Sexuality: Deconstructing Queer Space, Progress in Human Geography 32, no. 1 (February 2008): 89-103; and Melissa W. Wright, Gender and Geography II: Bridging the Gap - Feminist, Queer, and the Geographical Imaginary, Progress in Human Geography 34, no. 1 (February 2010): 56-66 The Queer and Trans Geographies Specialty Group (QTGSG) has recently changed its name! Please check back for an updated description of our group and our mission after AAG2020. The following information is not up to date as of December 2019 MISSION The mission of the Sexuality and Space Specialty Group is to: 1 By actively participating in a rural queer network, the possibility for Appalachian queer geographies to exist in ways that surpass popular representations emerge in a way that force us to renegotiate our understandings of homophobia and what sets its conditions. This project begins to uncover and theorize the ways in which kinship as a. Seattle's Shifting Queer Geographies is a short documentary tracing Capitol Hill's queer-story from the '70s when bars first started moving here, through the '80s-90s heyday, and then through the changes in the neighborhood that started around the early 2000s and continue today

The Queer and Trans Geographies Speciality Group (QTGSG) Graduate Student Paper Award allows the Queer and Trans Geographies Speciality Group of the AAG to recognize innovative and thought-provoking work in the fields of queer and trans geographies. This award offers the opportunity for the author of the winning paper to work with an editor at Or Queer Theory and/or lgbt studies departments/modules in traditional and alternative educational establishments/informal entities, enabling the formation and formulation of a gay/queer identity, in an inner psychological sense, but taking place in (usually) hetero-normativised physical spaces/geographies/buildings which are gaified or queered. Digital geographies, Queer Theory, feminist theory and methodologies, transgender studies, LGBTQ Studies, data visualization, Critical GIS, American studies, women's and gender studies, Social Theory, Cultural and Urban Geography, production of space. Geography, New Maps Plus, New Mappings Collaboratory, Social Theory

Queer Geography This blog is an open network for discussing and sharing thoughts and visual works on queer space. Please feel free to participate Sunday, March 11, 2007. Part of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Studies Commons, and the Urban Studies and Planning Commons Let us know how access to this document benefits you. Recommended Citation Saldaña, Paola Renata, The Scales and Shapes of Queer Women's Geographies: Mapping Private, Public and Cyber Spaces in Portland, OR (2015) Queer Geography | 21 sledujících uživatelů na LinkedIn. Evidence-based resource on sexual and gender diversity that aims to bridge the gap between science and the public. | Queer Geography z. s. (QG) is a professional think - tank, i.e. a group of experts, scientific, pedagogical, and professional staff, as well as other people interested in interdisciplinary understanding and study of. LGBT and queer communities as well as mainstream interests argue that these gay villages are in some form of 'decline' for various social, political and economic reasons. Given their similar histories and geographies, our analysis considers how these historical geographies have both enabled and constrained how the respective gay villages. Halberstam: Queer Temporality and Postmodern Geographies. I do not plan on writing this way normally but if you don't mind, I will focus on what I have to say about page nineteen because felt like a punch in the brain. I was that far into the reading, dandy with everything up until that point. I took notes that I want to share here, but first.

The BLACK GEOGRAPHIES SPECIALTY GROUP strives to create a global platform for: (a) promoting study of the social, political, cultural, economic, and ecological aspects of the race in/and geography; (b) encouraging critical reflection on the issues, processes, intrinsic qualities, and interconnections that shape Black lives and geographies on local, national, continental, and international. Check out the latest episode of StoryMaps Live. In this video, you'll hear from our featured storyteller about queer space and place, learn how to how to get started with StoryMaps, and see the latest enhancements to the product. Here are the highlights from our June 2021 webinar: - We discussed how ArcGIS StoryMaps is being used to tell stories about queer space and place - We demonstrated. Queer Utopian Geographies and Cold War Poetry intervenes in the general narrative about Cold War culture, made even more famous by such recent popular shows like Mad Men and Pan Am, that describes the era as a repressed society in desperate need of liberation. While indeed Cold War America was a time of paranoia and loyalty oaths, even before the Stonewall Riots of 1969 gay men and lesbians.

Welcome to the An Everyday Queer New York website, a complementary site to the book A Queer New York. The site is one of a handful that aims to tell more stories than could fit in the book. In my research, my mixed ethnographic / archival approach resulted in my rethinking about the construction of data. Hidden histories, proud communities : multiple narratives in the queer geographies of Lexington, Kentucky, 1930-1999 (dissertation) Author(s)/Publishing Information. Jeffery Alan Jones. Location(s) University of Kentucky Libraries: Special Collections Young Library. Access. Ph. D. thesis, University of Kentucky, 2001 Bisexuals utilize preexisting models of gay space and their dissatisfaction within dichotomous space to imagine how bisexual space and queer space could materialize. This thesis uses imagined bisexual geographies to expand upon queer geography's lens to include concepts of utopianism and queer futurity. These two viewpoints, being bisexual. THE GAS-LIGHTER AND THE HERO, AND OTHERS.BY STEVEN BENSON. GASLIGHTING-DEFINITION In politics Columnist Maureen Dowd was one of the first to use the term in the political context. [30] [31] She described the Bill Clinton administration's use of the technique in subjecting Newt Gingrich to small indignities intended to provoke him to make. Queer Geography (QG) se zaměřuje na prosazování holistického, syndemického a tedy biopsychosociálního porozumění souvisejících společenských a zdravotních problémů, otázek či.

Queer and trans* geographies of liminality: A literature

In order to better understand queer women's spatial patterns, the scholarship needs frameworks that are inclusive of private, cyber and temporary spaces. Given the lack of scholarship on the relationship between queer women and space, this research contributes to a better understanding of queer women's geographies in a changing political climate CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): We're Over There, Too! as they chart the spread of queer geographies from relegation to a disciplinary urban ghetto of sorts to engagement with an array of topics such as citizenship, rural geographies, and globalization. Beyond mere survey, they highlight many more areas sexuality and space studies might. My research explores the cultural geographies of queer ecojustice movements. Using collaborative documentary film and other critical visual methodologies, I address the contextual vulnerability of multiply-marginalized queer, trans, and two-spirit communities to climate change disasters, as well as the lessons for the climate justice movement that come from our communities' resilience and.

Queer tourism: Geographies of globalization. Special issue, GLQ: A Journal of Les-bian and Gay Studies 8 (1-2). Puri, Jyoti. 1999. Woman, body, desire in post-colonial India: Narratives of gender and sexuality. New York: Routledge. Richter, Linda. 1989. The Philippines: The politicization of tourism. In The politics of tourism in Asia As a scholar of geographies of gender and sexuality, it had long been a dream of mine to teach a Seminar in the City (SITC) series course with the Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies (CLAGS). The free, open, graduate-style seminars are offered by scholars, activists, and artists over the course of four meetings every semester in New York City

Abstract. The postgay era - marked by decreased stigmatization of non-heterosexual identities and increasing assimilation of gays and lesbians into the heterosexual mainstream - may be indicative of a broader pluralization of queer geographies expanding the social and sexual opportunities of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)-identified individuals beyond queer spaces A Queer Geography book. Read 2 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. What is the gay identity? Do gay people even exist? The bestsellin.. In our contemporary understanding of LGBTQ identities and communities, the binary of visible gay community versus closeted individuals is mapped on to American geographical and cultural divisions. Simply put, we associate urban with out and proud, and rural with closeted and homophobic. Scholars of queer rurality have explained this geography of the closet as one in which the rural United. There is an astonishing diversity of queer spaces for men and women alike, as Census data on zip codes shows us. Sometimes lesbians live in the same areas as gay men, like Provincetown, Mass., Rehoboth Beach, Del., and the Castro in San Francisco, Calif. But lesbian geographies are also quite distinct. Coupled women tend to live in less urban.

Queergeography

Critical geographies and the uses of sexuality

Department of Geography operations have moved online until further notice. To connect with the Main Office, please call 206.543.5843 or email geog@uw.edu.For Geography Advising, please visit this page to request an appointment via Zoom.Smith 415 Drop-In Lab, Sherman Lab & Group Study spaces are also closed until further notice In this thesis, I examine how metronormativity in the academic discipline of queer geography and in an overarching LGBTQ imaginary neglects the issue of heterosexism in urban areas, fails to acknowledge various other manifestations of structural oppression faced by residents of cities, and obscures the potential for politically mobilizing LGBTQ people in rural areas queer geography. Where Are the Welcome Signs? Finding Lesbian, Bisexual and Queer Community in Unexpected Places Wet For Her is an online sex toy retailer that's a welcoming space for queer.

(PDF) Queer Geography Rictor Norton - Academia

Article: Queer. Caribbean. Miami. Boy: A Personal Geography. One: Mr. James. Those long slender fingers, lean flickering things that move gracefully not with too much flourish, since he is, after all, an elementary math teacher in black Miami Spolek Queer Geography (QG) popularizuje vědecky ověřené poznatky týkající se zejména neheterosexuálních a genderově rozmanitých lidí, mezi naše zaměření patří ale také prevence a destigmatizace HIV a rozvoj oboru LGBTIQ+ psychologie. Vytváříme interaktivní a přehledné mapy, sdílíme a ověřujeme data a vždy uvádíme zdroje The Winged Geographies Group was founded in 2020 as a network to connect everyone which is interested in the historical and contemporary relationship between humans and birds. Our network is centred around a programme of monthly seminars, annual workshops, and the blog

Gay geography. I want to start this piece with an anecdote, a not-so-distant memory of the past, when the rent hikes in San Francisco's gentrified neighborhoods had not yet pushed me to the outer limits of the city. I was walking home, in the Mission district, from a meeting on Castro Street in San Francisco. And there it happened, the. Bears are a large global community of big and hairy gay, bisexual and queer (GBQ) men. Little sustained empirical scholarship has investigated Bears' lives and communities, and none from within geography. Three geographic lenses are used to demonstrate the significance of a geographic approach to Bears This article investigates the intersection of expatriate experiences, queer men's lives, and nocturnal geographies within the transnational Middle Eastern setting of Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Although narrowly focused on cisgender men who self-identify as Western and gay, the study addresses a lack of research about LGBT presence among expatriates globally, and poor. Interests: feminist geography, abolition, racial capitalism, queer geographies, social movements, higher education. Chelsea Nestel Email: nestel@wisc.edu Program: Ph.D. Advisor: Robert Roth Interests: Cartography, geography of the classical world, the spatial humanities. Bo Peng Pronoun(s): he/him/his Email: bo DOT peng AT wisc DOT ed

queer cultural geographies

Queer Geographies Army ROTC (Military Science

Related:epic here/queer lesbian history Lists/Top 10s nonfiction queer geography. Riese. Riese is the 39-year-old Co-Founder and CEO of Autostraddle.com as well as an award-winning writer,. Sexuality Studies and LGBT Activism in Latin America. The Sixth International Latin American Cultural Studies Conference, to be held at the University of Pittsburgh the first three days of April 2010, will gather a number of people who have been key to activism and academic work on LGBT issues in Latin America Food justice, Race & racism, Appalachia, Political Ecology, political economy, Black geographies, Queer & Feminist geographies, Critical Social Theory: Geography: American Association of Geographers, UK Political Ecology Working Group, Appalachian Studies Association, Critical Pedagogy Working Group, Social Theor In Unsettling Geographies: Primitivist Utopias in Queer American Literature from Walt Whitman to Willa Cather, I argue that the colonial discourse of primitivism played a central role in the queer literary imaginaries of both canonical and non-canonical U.S. authors. Building on the work of historians of sexuality who trace the complex development of the twentieth-century homo-/hetero.

Historical Geographies of Sexualities? Podmore

Russell & Kevin have a lovely bond, but one of them might not be ready to make it publicSUBSCRIBE: http://bit.ly/QTTVYTWATCH 'GEOGRAPHY CLUB' FULL MOVIE ON:W.. Queer Visibilities is a much-needed intervention in the geographies of sexualities. Drawing upon extensive ethnographic and archival work, it provides a theoretically sophisticated examination of the interconnected politics of class and race in the production of sexualised space within contemporary Cape Town It often queries the heterosexuality of some feminist geographies and the male dominance of geographies of sexualities and more recently queer geographies. In contesting the normative positioning of white, middle-class gay men in geographies of sexualities research, recognition of multiple social differences, including gender, that constitute. Cultural geography, critical human geography, economic geography, entrepreneurialism and startup economies, feminist geography, queer geography and sexuality. Daniel is currently seeking graduate students for supervision at the MA and PhD level. Please contact him by email with a CV and writing sample if you are interested It stands in solidarity with, and will continue to provide a platform for, all those engaged in anti-racist, anti-colonial, feminist, queer, and trans struggles around the world. 2020 marks the 40th anniversary of Urban Geography. We continue to use the means at our disposal, such as our annual lecture series, our seminar/workshop award and our.

The 2021 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Geographers Is this week, April 7-11. The Geographies of Food and Agriculture are sponsoring a wide range of sessions this year, and you can find the details and access the sessions through the conference program platform.Make sure to make room in your schedule for the GFASG business meeting on Saturday, April 10, from 6:15-7:30pm PDT CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): We're Over There, Too! as they chart the spread of queer geographies from relegation to a disciplinary urban ghetto of sorts to engagement with an array of topics such as citizenship, rural geographies, and globalization. Beyond mere survey, they highlight many more areas sexuality and space studies might. Kemi Adeyemi is Assistant Professor of Gender, Women & Sexuality Studies at the University of Washington. She is currently writing her book, Making New Grounds: Black Queer Women's Geographies of Neoliberalism, which explores the sonic, affective, and embodied methods black queer women have for taking pleasure in the neoliberal city, and she is in the process of co-editing Queer Nightlife, a.

Course Catalogue - Queer Geographies: Spatialising

Gay geographies refer to the distinctive sociospatial distributions of gay populations (particularly gay men), as well as the social and commercial spaces and institutions which provide focus for a gay community. In Western society, the visibility, form, and function of gay-oriented spaces has changed significantly through different historical periods, largely determined by the amount of. Jack/Judith Halberstam, Queer Temporality and Postmodern Geographies STUDY. PLAY Doing Gender doing is a lived practice / arrangement of phenomena rather than fixed identity performing? Queer Time. Destabilizing categories that are thought of as neutral (postmodernism Zotero is a free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share research He has taught at the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba and has been a member of IGLHRC´s International Advisory Council since 1999. He is also a member of the International Advisory Committee for CLAGS (Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies, City University of New York), as well as an activist with RedTrans and the Working Group on Intersexuality I speak Spanish and Russian. In addition to migration, my interests include ecology, environmental and infrastructural history, feminist/queer geography, literature, art, and creative writing. Publications: Tracey, Caroline. The Instagram Counter-Archive: Guadalupe Rosales, Graciela Iturbide, and Chicana Representation across Borders

Rafael Soldi curates Here and Now: Queer Geographies inAfter 1967: homosexuality in the Bibliography of BritishCaroline Tracey | Geography

Black geographies, health geographies, Black studies, feminist studies, queer of color critique, HIV prevention, health justice Tyler McCreary Assistant Professo Space and Place, Citizenship, Political Geography, Queer Studies, Qualitative Methods Geomorphology, physical geography, historical geography. Dr. Dydia DeLyser. This site is maintained by Department of Geography & the Environment. Last Published 5/28/21. To report problems or comments with this site,. ORIGINAL GAY GEOGRAPHY RUTH TAYLOR VINTAGE PICTORIAL MAP TEXAS AUSTIN 1935. $79.95 + $3.95 shipping + $3.95 shipping + $3.95 shipping. Top Rated Plus seller Top Rated Plus seller Top Rated Plus seller. 1600s Nova Terrarum Orbis Old World Wall Map Art Print - 24x32. $19.9 Chapters in Books. Gorman-Murray, A. (2021), 'Picturing dis/comforting geographies : place, punctum and photography', Geographies of Comfort, Routledge 9781472454027. Gorman-Murray, A. and Nash, C. (2021), 'Recovering the gay village : a comparative historical geography of urban change and planning in Toronto and Sydney', The Life and Afterlife of Gay Neighborhoods: Renaissance and Resurgence. ORIGINAL GAY GEOGRAPHY RUTH TAYLOR IDAHO BOISE MAP PICTORIAL 1935 EXCELLENT N67. $41.95 + $3.95 shipping + $3.95 shipping + $3.95 shipping. Top Rated Plus seller Top Rated Plus seller Top Rated Plus seller. ORIGINAL GAY GEOGRAPHY RUTH TAYLOR VINTAGE ARIZONA MAP PICTORIAL 1935 GOOD PLUS Seattle is located on the northwest edge of the continental United States, flanked by two mountain ranges and set on the calm shores of Puget Sound. It is remote from the country's hub but a portal to Alaska and Asia. It is widely considered liberal and green, but such a characterization oversimplifies a city of many idiosyncrasies and.